Tag Archives: Annie Jenness-Miller Jenness MIller

Annie Jenness-Miller’s Editorial, Dress, March 1890

“It is not to be questioned that all women, without regard to social position, or lack of it, would rather be comfortable than uncomfortable, and the woman who does not wish to look well is sadly out of balance with the beautiful laws of God and Nature.” — Annie Jenness-Miller, in Dress, March 1890.

Annie Jenness-Miller explained her ideas about reforming women’s dress in lectures, in books, and, repeatedly, in her magazine, Dress. This three-page editorial appeared in March, 1890. I will type out some quotations, and add some illustrations from the same issue of Dress magazine. I will run the entire text of her “Editorial Comment” at the bottom of this post. If you would like to read the complete pages in full screen, I have posted them at witness2fashion.com. Just click on the image of the page and then select the full-screen view.

Editorial Comments by Annie Jenness-Miller in Dress, Volume IV, March, 1890. The comments ran from page 135 through 137.

Editorial Comments by Annie Jenness-Miller in Dress, Volume IV, March, 1890. The comments ran from page 135 [this page] through 137.

On page 135 she writes, “Dress reform is scarcely the work in which we are engaged, for the idea is less of reform than of physical evolution and development, and the consequent scientific clothing of the body.”

“For the most part, women wear too many garments…. With the Jenness-Miller system we endeavor to get the essential warmth with fewer garments, and the correct adaptation to the human shape and form….” To see and read about her Reform Underwear — click here.

On page 136, Jenness-Miller explains that Jenness-Miller Patterns, which could be ordered from the magazine, do not constrict the waist, because the garments are constructed upon the “gown-form, which gets rid of the band about the waist” instead of “the usual skirt lining ending at the waist on a belt.”

To show what she was criticizing, here are some typical late 1800’s outfits which have separate skirts and bodices. The weight of a fully lined bustle dress, like this one, which would usually be worn over drawers, a petticoat, a bustle cage, and another petticoat, all hanging from the wearer’s waist, could give you quite a backache. Jenness-Miller was an American; in England, rational dress advocate Lady Florence Harberton complained that no woman should have to wear undergarments that weighed more than seven pounds.

This "bustle dress," either 1870s or 1880s, is really a bodice and skirt -- a heavy skirt. Private collection.

This “bustle dress,” is really a bodice and skirt — a heavy skirt. Private collection. [Elaborate — and sun-faded — as it is, I’m not convinced that this is as old as it looks. See inside.]

Inside of the bodice, blue satin bustle dress. Private collection.

Inside of the bodice, blue satin bustle dress. This was in a private collection. [I’m a little dubious about the age of the boning…. Looks like a theatrical costume to me….]

In the two-piece outfit below, which is somewhat later than the Jenness-Miller magazine, the weight of the skirt — or raising your arms — could create a problem, since the bodice does not come down over the hips to cover the waistband at all times, causing “gaposis.”

When the bodice ends at the natural waist, as in this ToC outfit, hooks and eyes were needed to keep them together. Private collection.

When the bodice ended at the natural waist, as in this turn of the century outfit, hooks and eyes were needed to keep them together. Private collection.

The problem of “gaposis” [a 20th century advertising term] was solved by attaching hooks and loops:

Inside back of bodice, ToC garment.

Inside back of bodice, turn of the century garment — not dated precisely.

Detail. You can see the hooks, which are attached to the bodice facing in and hanging down, and the eyes, attached to the waistband of the skirt. This kept the two pieces aligned and gave some support to the skirt, which could be especially heavy in back from the 1860s through the 1890s. (Many devices for supporting the skirt have been invented.)

Detail. Back of bodice, front of skirt. You can see the hooks, which are attached to the bodice facing in and hanging down, and the eyes, attached to the waistband of the skirt, front and back. This kept the two pieces aligned and gave some support to the skirt, which could be especially heavy in back from the 1860s through the 1890s. (Many devices for supporting the skirt have been invented.)

 

“The gown form is the lining of the outside skirt, just as the usual skirt lining is the foundation upon which the outside material is made. In the ordinary fashionable gown the lining and material hang upon the hip, abdomen, and back, from a belt; in the Jenness-Miller system the lining extends upward into a low-necked, sleeveless waist [i.e., under-bodice], the dress material only ending at the waistline, sewed firmly to the foundation, and with a tape covering the raw edges. This arrangement does not suspend the weight from the shoulders, but instead, compels each member to carry its own weight.”

I interpret this to mean that “the dress material only” ends at the waistline, while the gown-form/lining continues down inside the skirt from shoulders to hem, spreading the weight of the fabrics. Some, but by no means all, of the Jenness-Miller patterns look like a “dress” rather than a skirt and bodice.

Following are some Jenness-Miller patterns from Dress, Vol IV, March 1890, the same issue which featured her three-page editorial.

Jenness-Miller pattern for "The Isonde." Dress, March 1890.

Jenness-Miller pattern for “The Isonde.” Dress, March 1890.

Two Easter Costumes, from Dress. Frontispiece, March 1890.

Two Easter Costumes, from Jenness-Miller’s Dress. Frontispiece, March 1890.

The fact that the skirt lining extended to the shoulders is not obvious from the outside of the dresses.

Alas, I have only a fragment about the Jenness-Miller gown-form from elsewhere in the magazine:

A fragment of text about the Jenness-Miller dress form (a lining method) from March 1890, page 128.

A fragment of text about the Jenness-Miller dress form (a lining method) from March 1890, page 128.

My guess at the missing parts is:

A possible reconstruction of missing text about the Jennes-Miller gown-form.

A possible reconstruction of missing text about the Jenness-Miller gown-form.

The Faustina, Dress, March 1890, p. 132.

The Faustina, Jenness-Miller’s Dress, March 1890, p. 132.

The Lilian dress was "designed for the benefit of those women whose constant plaint is that they have no hips." Dress, March 1890, p. 128.

The Lilian dress was “designed for the benefit of those women whose constant plaint is that they have no hips.” Jenness-Miller’s Dress, March 1890, p. 128.

The Cornelia, from Jenness-Miller's Dress. March 1890.

The Cornelia, from Jenness-Miller’s Dress. March 1890.

Calling a Leg a Leg

A woman paying a call, from Punch, July 1889. The hostess is sitting with her legs crossed, and slouching on her tailbone in a way Mrs. Jenness-MIller would not have approved. From The Way to Wear'em.

A woman paying a call, from Punch, July 1889. The hostess is sitting with her legs crossed, and slouching on her tailbone in a way that Mrs. Jenness-Miller would not have approved. From The Way to Wear’em.

“What these women really need to learn is not to sit on the end of the spine with the back curved outward….”

Casting light on the prudery of her era, on page 136 Annie Jenness-Miller’s editorial criticizes women “who would be shocked to use the strong, refined, and proper term, leg, in speaking of these useful and necessary members,” but who “will, in a thoughtless and unguarded moment, from habit, sit in a parlor with legs crossed in a manner to display the undergarments and attract unpleasant attention.”  (Those shockable women called their legs “members” or “nether limbs.”)

The Jenness-Miller School for Physical Culture

On page 137, the editor discusses her “Jenness-Miller School for Physical Culture.” She believed that women would be able to do without corsets if they strengthened the muscles of the abdomen through exercise, giving “nature’s own corsets, the floating ribs, room and freedom for proper play.” (Dress had pages of exercises for women illustrated in regular articles called “Physical Culture.”)

“The three-fold object of our system is the possession of grace, strength, and beauty…. No exercises will be allowed which sacrifice grace to strength…. Ease and freedom in motion will be taught by a variety of movements [including dance.] “Fencing, so admirably adapted to develop and fortify the chest, as well as to give agility and precision to movement, will be taught by Monsieur Senac, who has no rival in this art.”

“A form of Greek gown will be used in lieu of the suit ordinarily worn in athletic practice. This will fall loosely from the shoulder in graceful lines which will reveal the movements of the legs.”

Here is the full text, beginning with the left column on page 135:

art 1 135 maybe editoral underwear pg 1 March 1890

art 2 135 maybe editoral underwear pg 1 March 1890

art 3 135 maybe editoral underwear pg 1 March 1890

art 4 135 maybe editoral underwear pg 1 March 1890

art 6 135 maybe editoral underwear pg 1 March 1890

Page 136:

art 7 p 136 editorial undies p 2

art 8 136 editorial undies p 2

art 9 136 editorial undies p 2

art 10 136 editorial undies p 2

art 11 136 editorial undies p 2

art 15 136 editorial undies p 2

Page 137:

art 16 137 editorial undies fencing p3

art 17 137 editorial undies fencing p3

art 18 137 editorial undies fencing p3

art 19 137 editorial undies fencing p3

art 20 137 editorial undies fencing p3

art 21 137 editorial undies fencing p3

art 22 137 editorial undies fencing p3

End of page 137. These three pages of Editorial Comment were not illustrated, since the garments referred to had been described in earlier issues of the magazine. Monsieur Regis Senac ran a fencing school in New York. Carl Marwig was a dance teacher and Broadway choreographer.

 

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Filed under 1870s to 1900s fashions, A Costumers' Bookshelf, Costumes for the 19th century, Dresses, Late Victorian fashions, Old Advertisements & Popular Culture, Resources for Costumers, Underthings, Hosiery, Corsets, etc, Vintage Garments: The Real Thing, Vintage patterns

Jenness-Miller Rational Dress Underwear for Women

The Jenness-Miller Magazine Dress, Vol II, Jan-Feb, Probably 1888. Page 181. "Rational Dress" Underwear for Women.

The Jenness-Miller Magazine Dress, Vol II, Jan-Feb, probably 1888. Page 181. “Rational Dress” Underwear for Women.

The Jenness-Miller Magazine Dress, Vol. II, Jan-Feb, probably 1888. "Rational Dress" Underwear for Women, p. 182.

The Jenness-Miller Magazine Dress, Vol. II, Jan-Feb, probably 1888. “Rational Dress” Underwear for Women, p. 182.

Annie Jenness-Miller was a strong advocate for “Rational Dress” for women, and, with her sister, Mabel Jenness, wrote and published her own magazine, called Dress, probably beginning in 1887. [The title and dating of early issues was erratic, but I am assuming that, since Volume 4 began with January of 1890, Volume 2, January-February dates to 1888. The masthead of Volume II offered “the entire first volume of Dress, thirteen numbers” for seventy-five cents plus postage. By January 0f 1890, the dating clearly was established, and most pages were numbered.]

Several years ago, I was selling a bound volume of Jenness-Miller’s Dress for a friend. It included January-February of “Volume II,” and January through June of of Volume IV. At the time I had no idea of blogging, so I did not label my photos with year, month and page number. I just tried to photograph “selling points.”

Recently a scholar tracked me down and asked for more specific information. When I checked my photo files, I realized that, because I had photographed all the Tables of Contents, I could reconstruct Volume numbers, pages and dates for many items.

As often happens with the internet — at least to me — I find something online, and then discover, months or years later, that I can’t get the same search results a second time. I thought that this underwear article by Annie Jenness-Miller had been posted online in its entirety — but now I can’t find it, so, for the benefit of scholars, I’m reprinting it. And, since WordPress seems to lose files bigger than 500 dpi on the longest side after I post them, I have reprinted the text and pictures from those two pages shown at the top of this post, but broken them up into legible segments.

Here is the article “Underwear for Women,” from The Jenness-Miller Magazine Dress, Vol. II, Jan-Feb, (probably 1888,) pp. 181-82. [Added 8/19/16: You can also find the article, in full page photos that can be enlarged to readable scale, at witness2fashion.com. ]

500 text first para and union suit 1988 Vol II p 181

Jenness-Miller Union Suit, from Underwear for Women, Jan-Feb 1888 Dress Magazine.

Jenness-Miller Union Suit, from Underwear for Women, Jan-Feb 1888 Dress Magazine,, p. 181.

500 test chemilette over union suit prob 1888 Vol II p 181 underwear Img_9588

Jenness-Miller Chemilette, from Underwear for Women, Jan-Feb 1888 Dress Magazine.

Jenness-Miller Chemilette, from “Underwear for Women,” Jan-Feb 1888 Dress Magazine, p.181.

500 text legelettes only prob 1888 Vol II p 181 underwear Img_9588

 

Jenness-Miller Turkish Leglettes, or Divided Petticoat, from Underwear for Women, Jan-Feb 1888 Dress Magazine.

Jenness-Miller Turkish Leglettes, or Divided Petticoat, from Underwear for Women, Jan-Feb 1888 Dress Magazine, p. 182.

500 text bodice only prob 1888 Vol II p 181 underwear Img_9588

Jenness-Miller Model Bodice, from Underwear for Women, Jan-Feb 1888 Dress Magazine.

Jenness-Miller Model Bodice, from “Underwear for Women,” Jan-Feb 1888 Dress Magazine, p. 182. A slightly different model bodice appears here.

500 text from 181 bottom to 182 top 1888 Vol II

500 text chemilette prob 1888 Vol II p 182 underwear Img_9589

500 text turkish leglettes 1888 Vol II p 182

500 w model bodice text prob 1888 Vol II p 182 underwear Img_9589

500 text all garments togetherprob 1888 Vol II p 182 underwear Img_9589

Last paragraphs of Underwear for Women article, Dress. p 182.

Last paragraphs of “Underwear for Women” article, Dress, page 182.

[I don’t know how a woman wearing a “Union Suit,” under a “Chemilette,” under “Turkish Leglettes,” manages to go to the bathroom. Journalistic standards of the day may have prevented discussing this. In a different article [March 1890, page 136] Jenness-Miller felt the need to remind her readers that many women “would be shocked to use the strong, refined, and proper term, leg” so explaining the convenience of drop flaps and buttoned crotches may have been impossible. The Jenness-Miller garments do not appear to be crotchless, as many ladies’ bloomers were.]

Annie-Jenness Miller wrote frequent editorials in Dress, extolling her patterns and expounding her theories. She believed that women needed to exercise to develop graceful, healthy bodies that would not need the support of corsets, and her magazine published regular articles on “Physical Culture.”

A typical illustration from Jenness-Miller's articles on Physical Culture for women. Circa 1888-1890

A typical illustration from Jenness-Miller’s articles on Physical Culture for women. Dress, circa 1888-1890.

“By freeing and bringing into action the muscles at the waist renewed life is given to all bodily functions.”

She also realized that most women would like to wear comfortable and practical clothing, but without looking noticeably out of fashion, so many of her patterns look very similar to chic clothing of the day.  This is “the Helene” (her dress patterns were often given names, rather than numbers, like couture.)

Although part of the Rational Dress movement, "The Helene" costume even had a vestigial bustle. From Jenness-Miller's Dress magazine, Jan. 1890, p. 41.

Although part of the Rational Dress movement, “The Helene” costume even had a vestigial bustle. From Jenness-Miller’s Dress magazine, Jan. 1890, p. 41.

Miller did not want her customers to be ridiculed, as women who wore 1850’s “Bloomer” clothing had been. Jenness-Miller’s followers wore her petticoat replacement, “Turkish leglettes,” under their dress — invisibly — rather than wearing a divided dress — except for really strenuous sports, like mountain climbing. Below, Jenness-Miller “Outing Costumes” from April 1890 are — from left to right — “For Geologists and Mountain Climbing,” “Riding Habit,” “Yachting,” and “Lawn Tennis.”

Jenness-Miller costumer for Mountain climbing, riding, yachting, and lawn tennis, from Dress, April 1890.

Jenness-Miller costumer for Mountain climbing, riding, yachting, and lawn tennis, from Dress, April 1890.

I’ll publish another of her complete articles later, but for now, if you want to know more about Annie Jenness-Miller and Dress, I recommend these sites:

Annie Jenness Miller: Dress Reform, from Dress, 1888

Dress Improvement, by Mrs. Jenness Miller, in A Celebration of Women Writers

Aesthetic Dress (for an overview of 19th century dress reform movements, with a useful bibliography)

and, of course, The Vintage Traveler’s post about Mrs. Jenness-Miller, where you will see bigger images and more quotations.

Incidentally, one reason it’s hard to find articles about Jenness-Miller online is that hyphen! Search both with and without it.

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Filed under 1870s to 1900s fashions, Corselettes, Corsets, Corsets, Corsets & Corselettes, Costumes for the 19th century, Late Victorian fashions, Old Advertisements & Popular Culture, Resources for Costumers, Slips and Petticoats, Sportswear, Underthings, Underthings, Hosiery, Corsets, etc